AK2: Human adenylate kinase 2
PDB Code: 2C9Y
Adenylate kinases are essential for the maintenance of cellular energetic economy and are key enzymes in the synthesis, equilibration and regulation of adenine nucleotides. AKs catalyzes nucleotide exchange (NTP + NMP <=> 2NDP) and facilitates transfer of both β- and γ-phosphoryls. This enzymatic reaction is particularly important in tissues with an increase energy demand.
AK2 is highly expressed in heart, liver, pancreas and skeletal muscle and moderately expressed in kidney, placenta and brain. Weak expression of AK2 has also been detected in lung tissue. AK2 is localized in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space. AK2 expression is upregulated in the neural tube after ethanol exposure where it is possibly involved in mediating ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. The expression of AK2 isozymes is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated and is induced after IFN-R and IL-15 stimulation.
Furthermore AK2 is overexpressed in acute myelogenous leukemia and AK2 activity is mainly responsible for cellular activation of 2’,3’- dideoxyadenosine 5-monophosphate (ddAMP), which is a key intermediate in the metabolism of the antiviral agent 2’,3’-dideoxyinosine (ddI) to its active triphosphate derivative, 2’,3’-dideoxyadenosine -5’-triphosphate (ddATP). AK2 may also play a role in apoptosis as in apoptotic cells AK2 is translocated into the cytosol concomitantly with cytochrome C.
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