YWHAQ: Human protein 14-3-3 theta isoform
PDB Code: 2BTP
Phosphorylation of a target protein by a specific kinase alters the characteristics of the protein in a number of ways. One alteration is that the attached phosphate group presents a handle to which other molecules can bind thus forming a complex. Generally, this is how the14-3-3 molecules interact with their target proteins.
14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved eukaryotic proteins that bind to phosphorylated Ser (pS) residues via the two consensus sequences of RXXXpSXP and R(S/X)XpSXP. The functional unit is a dimer and their interaction with the phosphorylated target can result in stabilisation of the protein, alteration of enzyme activity, localisation within the cell, prevention of dephosphorylation and either blockage or mediation of protein interactions. Clinically, an elevated level of 14-3-3 proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid is used as a marker from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
14-3-3 theta appears to be a specific marker of lung cancer  with lower levels of 14-3-3 proteins in the cancer cells increasing the ability of ionizing radiation to kill the cancerous cells. Lateral sclerosis and injury to motorneurons also results in an up-regulation of 14-3-3 theta。 These results hint at a possible general indicator of a neuronal damage being an increase in the level of 14-3-3 proteins. This is supported by observations that 14-3-3 proteins from the cerebrospinal fluid clear after an infection of bacterial meningitis

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