YWHAH: Human protein 14-3-3 eta isoform
PDB Code: 2C63
Phosphorylation of a target protein by a specific kinase alters the characteristics of the protein in a number of ways. One alteration is that the attached phosphate group presents a handle to which other molecules can bind thus forming a complex. Gnerally, this is how the14-3-3 molecules interact with their target proteins.
14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved eukaryotic proteins that bind to phosphorylated Ser (pS) residues via the two consensus sequences of RXXXpSXP and R(S/X)XpSXP. The functional unit is a dimer and their interaction with the phosphorylated target can result in stabilisation of the protein, alteration of enzyme activity, localisation within the cell, prevention of dephosphorylation and either blockage or mediation of protein interactions.
Among the many binding partners that all of the 14-3-3 family members possess, YWHAH (14-3-3 eta) has been shown to bind to the transcription factor Miz1, a protein which is absolutely necessary for early embryonic development during gastrulation. This interaction appears to be important in the regulation of many genes involved in the recovery from rest after DNA damage. 14-3-3 eta also interacts with another protein important in cell cycle control, the dual specificity phosphatase CDC25B indicating that one of the cellular roles for this isoform centres on cell cycle regulation.

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