PTPRT: Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor T
PDB Code: 2OOQ
PTPRT belongs together with PTPμ, PTPκ and PCP-2 to the receptor type IIb (2B) subfamily of PTPases. The full-length protein contains a large extracellular region containing a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain and Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats, a single transmembrane region and two intracellular catalytic domains.
PTPRT has been suggested to play roles in both signal transduction and cellular adhesion regulating cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. This phosphatase is mainly expressed in the central nervous system with highest expression levels reported in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, olfactory bulb, subiculum, cerebral cortex, pyriform cortex, medullary motor nuclei, and anterior cerebellum. Lower expression levels have also been detected in colon, heart, lung and pancreas. Expression of PTPRT is developmentally regulated and is high in the cortex and olfactory bulbs during perinatal development, but down-regulated during postnatal week two.
PTPRT is mutated in several cancer types in particular in colon cancer. Five missense mutations have been detected in cancer tissues reducing phosphatase activity suggesting a tumor suppressor function for this phosphatase. PTPRT has also been found to be upregulated in ERalpha positive breast cancer.
PTPRT interacts with the catalytically inactive phosphatase PTPRN, Islet antigen-2 (IA-2), a major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes as well as with several adherens junctional proteins including E-cadherin, p120ctn, N-cadherin, VE-cadherin, desmoglein, α, β and γ catenin as well as α-actinin.
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