PTPRG: Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor type Gamma
PDB Code: 2H4V
PTPRG (Protein Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase gamma) belongs together with PTPRζ to the R5 subfamily which is characterized by an extracellular region containing an N-terminal carbonic anhydrase-like domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic region with 2 tandem catalytic tyrosine phosphatase domains. Four splice forms have been reported ( PTPRG-A, -B, -C, and -S). The longest isoform (A) is truncated by 29 residues in isoform B, isoform C has only a single phosphatase domain and isoform S is an extracellular variant of PTPRG. All four isoforms are expressed in brain, kidney, lung, and heart.
PTPRG has been discussed as a tumour suppressor gene. The gene was found to be hypermethylated in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) which results in downregulation of PTPRG expression. Lower expression levels of PTPRG have been reported for a number of cancerous tissues and several mutations have been isolated from tumour cells. Furthermore expression levels are influenced by estradiol-17beta which suppresses PTPRG expression as well as by linoleic acid, IL-1 and TNFalpha which results in upregulation of PTPRG expression.
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