PTPN18: Human Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 18
PDB Code: 2OC3
PTPN18 belongs to the non-receptor class 4 subfamily of protein-tyrosine phosphatases which is also called the PEST family of PTPs. Members of this family contain an N-terminal phosphatase domain followed by a proline/serine and threonine rich region. In addition to PTPN18 this family comprises PTP-PEST (PTPN12, PTP-P19, PTPG1) and PEP (PTP, PTPN22, LYP). The precise biological function of PTPN18 is still unclear but this phosphatase seems to be involved regulating a number of cytoskeletal functions and differentiation of neuronal cells. PTPN18 regulates HER2 activity and has therefore been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor and several links to tumor growth have been established. PTPN18 was found to differentially dephosphorylate several auto-phosphorylated tyrosine kinases known to be over-expressed in tumor tissues. PTPN18 has been reported to be coexpressed with the oncogene HER2 in breast cancer cells, and has been shown to regulate HER2 activity. In thyroid cancer, several cancer-associated alternative spliced variants have been reported including isoforms that lack the phosphatase domain.
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