AK4: Human adenylate kinase 4
PDB Code: 2AR7
Adenylate kinases are essential for the maintenance of cellular energetic economy and are key enzymes in the synthesis, equilibration and regulation of nucleotides. AK’s catalyze nucleotide exchange (ATP + AMP <=> 2ADP) and facilitates transfer of both β- and γ-phosphoryls in ATP and other nucleotide substrates. In contrast to cytoplasmic AKs which participate in energy metabolism when local high energy phosphate levels are low, mitochondrial AKs function in the salvage pathway of AMP. Recently, two additional AK isozymes, AK4 and AK5, were identified, and the previously reported human AK3 was recently renamed AK4.
AK4 is localized in the mitochondrial matrix and expression has been predominantly detected in kidney, moderately in liver and weakly in brain and heart, and was not detectable in skeletal muscle in human tissues. The substrate specificity of AK4 remains to be determined.
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